Down the slippery slope
The Universities of Bradford and Bath have produced a joint report highlighting how contemporary chemical and life science research may potentially be applied to the study or creation of incapacitating chemical agent weapons.
Apologies to Prof Dando who sent me this excellent people right in the middle of preparation for CBRNe Convergence - highly recommend downloading it from here
The original press release is below:
The report 'Down the slippery slope?’ coincides with the 12th anniversary of the Moscow theatre siege, where many hostages were ultimately killed by an incapacitating chemical agent (ICA) intended to aid their release. This report highlights specific areas where concerns or mis-perceptions might arise as to the nature and intended uses of chemical and life-science research. The report also explores how States can ensure that such dual-use research is not used in prohibited chemical weapons development.
The study was produced jointly by the Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project and the Biochemical Security 2030 Project in Bath. It examines contemporary research in pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and neuroscience exploring a range of pharmaceutical chemicals potentially applicable to the study or development of ICA weapons.
Professor Malcolm Dando co-author of the report and Professor of International Security at the University of Bradford states: “The development and introduction of ICA weapons threatens to create a “slippery slope”. Once introduced there is a danger that such weapons will consequently be used for an increasingly broad range of purposes.
“Our study indicates that dual-use research being conducted in a variety of institutional environments and for a range of (stated or unstated) purposes could potentially be applied to the study or creation of ICA weapons.”
As well as documenting contemporary research by Russian scientists, the report highlights the possession of ICA weapons by the Chinese Peoples’ Liberation Army, their previous use by the Israeli security services, and examines unconfirmed allegations of use in Syria. In addition, the report explores potentially relevant research activities undertaken since 1997 in the Czech Republic, India, Iran, the United Kingdom and the United States.
ICA weapons come under the scope of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and their use in armed conflict is absolutely prohibited. However there are differing interpretations as to whether, and in what circumstances, such toxic chemicals could be employed for law enforcement purposes.
In 2013, certain States - including the U.K. and U.S. – formally declared they do not develop or possess ICA weapons; however others remain silent. To date this issue has not been satisfactorily addressed by the CWC States Parties as a whole. This new report, published as governments prepare for the forthcoming CWC Conference of States Parties in December, is intended to spotlight this issue. The report calls on States to halt all development, stockpiling and use of ICA weapons until CWC States Parties have collectively determined whether or not such weapons should be permitted in law enforcement.
Dr Michael Crowley co-author of the report argues that: “Because the possession and utilisation of ICA weapons currently appears to be restricted to a relatively small number of countries, there is still time for the international community to act.
“There is now a window of opportunity for the CWC States Parties to take a precautionary and preventative approach. If the international community does not adequately respond to these challenges, there is a danger that more States may be become intrigued by these weapons, with the consequent threat of their proliferation and misuse.”